New Restructure findings show that bread shape influences energy intake

New findings from the RESTRUCTURE project have been published in the journal Food Quality and Preference highlighting how bread shape can influence both bread and condiment intakes. The study entitled “Bread buns or slices? How variations to bread shape modifies ad libitum intake of bread and toppings” sough to investigate the effect of size (small vs. large buns) and shape (small bun vs. squared sandwich slice) on bread and condiment intake.

Participants (N=37) completed three ad libitum breakfast sessions consisting of either small buns, large buns, or squared sandwich slices, where they were free to use four kinds of condiments/toppings (apple syrup, jam, cream cheese, and egg salad). Researchers measured the amount people consumed and showed that sandwich slices lead to relatively higher intake of toppings and lower intake of bread, whereas small buns reduced intake of toppings but promoted higher intakes of bread. However, total breakfast energy intake (kcals) was not different between buns or slices. Author and PhD researcher Lise Heuven concludes “changing bread shape can be used to manipulate the amount of toppings, condiments or sauces people tend to consume, which contribute to their meal energy intake”.

Findings from the recent study will be used for the design of meals of the RESTRUCTURE randomised controlled feeding trial. In this trial WUR researchers seek to test whether dietary energy intakes can be moderated using texture based differences in eating speed.

Original publication

Dieuwerke P. Bolhuis, Aaron Wouters, Lise A.J. Heuven, Bread buns or slices? variations of bread shape modifies ad libitum intake of bread and toppings. Food Quality and Preference (2024),